The Science of FROG Technology Using Silver to Destroy Bacteria

The following two lab reports show the antimicrobial capabilities of silver; the first with 0.5 ppm chlorine. The second with one granule of silver.


Mineral systems are almost always described as offering silver and copper. While it’s true that both minerals are contained in some systems, they’re not in all systems.

Copper is a proven and commonly used algaecide. However, it can cause staining due to oversaturation. Sequestrants may be needed to prevent this.

Silver is known as silver chloride, silver nitrate, silver oxide, colloidal silver or silver ions. All are effective bactericides, it’s simply a matter of dissolution rate and delivery method.

Silver is a proven sanitizer with documentation that dates back thousands of years.

  • Early Phoenician records note that water kept in silver vessels remained “cleaner”
  • Hippocrates promoted silver’s anti-disease properties

Fast forward through the centuries and you’ll find that silver has been extensively studied by the World Health Organization[1], and Stanford University[2], as an effective bactericide in potable water. Silver is also used in a host of products from bandages, to apparel and clothes washers.

Silver, in combination with chlorine, is a well-known sanitizer for pools and hot tubs. On a microscopic level, “Silver ions perform their deadly work by punching holes in bacterial membranes and wreaking havoc once inside.” … The silver is not consumed and can leach out of the dead bacteria to kill again and again, thus allowing the silver to continue as an active disinfectant.[3]


The first test was performed using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as specified in the official AOAC International method for evaluating disinfectants for swimming pools. Two petri dishes contained fresh cultures of E. coli.

  • The first petri dish of E. coli received no treatment
  • The second petri dish of E. coli was treated with silver ions and 0.5 ppm chlorine




Silver ions as found in the patented FROG Mineral Formula along with 0.5 ppm of chlorine is as effective as 1.0 ppm of chlorine alone. This means chlorine use is reduced up to 50% compared to the minimum EPA recommended chlorine level of 1.0 ppm for a stabilized swimming pool or the minimum ANSI recommended chlorine level of 2.0 ppm for a hot tub. FROG minerals used in conjunction with 0.5 ppm chlorine is EPA registered for use as a swimming pool and hot tub disinfectant. This means chlorine use is reduced up to 50%; the combination of a small amount of chlorine plus silver kills bacteria 2 ways.



This petri dish contains active bacteria and one FROG silver granule, showing the inhibited bacteria growth around just one silver granule. FROG Fresh Mineral Water∞ combines silver with a reduced amount of chlorine, effectively killing bacteria in 2 ways.


Numerous factors influence the concentrations necessary for disinfection of swimming pool water in practical applications. During any given pool usage, a random amount of water is splashed out of the pool. Backwashing, evaporation and general weather conditions, such as rain, decrease or dilute pool water. All of these factors, individually or in any combination, mean that new water must be added to the pool. Due to these factors, the silver must be replaced every six months or every swim season, whichever comes first, to ensure that the swimming pool gets the full FROG effect of clean, clear, water.

AT Higher Levels, Chlorine is Harsh on Skin, Hair, Swimsuits and Surfaces

Most residential pools use chlorine. And while chlorine is effective at killing bacteria, many pools have much higher levels of chlorine than industry standards of 1.0 – 3.0 ppm of chlorine. Many people are sensitive to chlorine. Experts warn that excessive exposure to chlorine can cause sickness, rashes, coughing, nose or throat pain, eye irritation, and bouts of asthma. Instructions for safely chlorinating a pool usually call for a maximum of 4 ppm when people are in the pool. [4]

It’s possible to use much less chlorine – and effectively maintain a crystal-clear, clean pool with FROG.

FROG uses patented mineral technology, plus a low level of chlorine, reducing chlorine use up to 2 X.


1.    The World Health Organization, “Silver as a drinking-water disinfectant,”

2.    Stanford News,,



∞ For pools and hot tubs.